Assignment 5 Feedback

I was very pleased with the feedback for this assignment. My tutor made very positive comments about the research and the exploration of complex ideas in the project. The comments were equally positive about the technical quality of the work and in particular how  through experimentation I had managed to produce a well balanced and exposed image.

Most importantly however were the comments about how I had met the challenge of the final assignment and he commented on how this work was the culmination of my evolution through the module. I pleased to see the comment that what I had produced was good work.

There is a genuine sense of beginning to find the elusive notion of a personal voice. This work is located in memory and also biography. Reflecting on much of my work outside of the OCA these are themes I continue to return to.  This work also opens up the possibility of further projects and it is because of this i felt I needed to develop the work further before submission for assessment.

Reflecting on my tutors feedback I decided  to rework the assignment by adding another image that explores the idea of who I might have been and how that has influenced who I am. It will need to be another tableaux, but this time more elusive and combining objects from my real life and an imaged life. The idea is that both images would be viewed in sequence. Neither reveal who I am but both contain elements of who I am. The ambiguity in the picture elements creating intrigue, but also encouraging the vower to think about the path they have taken and the pivotal moments of decision making.

There is a narrative in objects, they raise questions and also carry their own meaning. The tableaux I aim to produce will use objects from my real life and an imagined life.

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Making it up

 

Construct a stand-alone image of your choice. Alternatively, you may choose to make a series, elaborating on the same theme.

As the culminating assignment for the course you may wish to draw upon skills learned from Parts One to Four – using various forms of narrative, using yourself as subject matter, telling stories and reading images. The only stipulation is that you produce work that has been controlled and directed by you for a specific purpose. Remember to create a story with a specific context like the artists you’ve looked at in Part Five. This means you need to have an artistic intention, so a good place to start would be to write down some ideas. This could then form the basis for a 300-word introduction to the piece. You may find it helpful to draw storyboards to help you visualise your ideas.

The aim of this assignment is to use props, costume, models, location, lighting, etc. to contribute to the overall meaning of the image. (Use flash/lights if required but available light is fine as long as it is considered.)

If the narrative is to be set in a different era, then the elements of the image must reflect this. Also, consider the symbolic meanings of objects and try not to be too literal in your approach. For example, don’t automatically use red roses in a love scene but try to be subtle in your ideas to obtain a more true-to-life scenario.

For this final assignment, you should also include an illustrated evaluation of the process you went through to produce your final image(s). Include snapshots of setting up the work and write about how you felt your direction went, how you found the location, props, etc. How did this process affect the final outcome? Write around 1,000 words in total (including your 300-word introduction).

Send your final image(s) to your tutor, along with your commentary and relevant pages of your learning log (or blog url).

Creating a plausible fiction:

Who I might have been, who might you have been?

Reviewing the work undertaken throughout Context and Narrative I was struck by the notion of the artist as subject of their own work and the potential of the image as autobiography. While preparing for this assignment two fortuitous things occurred. I revisited Jodie Taylor’s ‘Memories of Childhood’ and I received an annual pension contributions statement from my employer. Two entirely unconnected events that led to a creative moment.

Reflecting on 34 years in a career, set out in the stark numbers of a pension statement, with Jodie Taylors images on my computer screen, I was reminded that I hated school, with one small exception, the time I spent in woodwork lessons. They were a sort of haven, in no small part due to the kindness of Mr. Arkwright, a teacher who seemed to be genuinely interested in his pupils. As a 15 year old I found confidence through those lessons. I had an aptitude that meant I was trusted with higher grade materials and more complex projects. The experience of one part of school being positive helped my confidence and sense of self-worth.

In my final two years of secondary education I was set on becoming a carpenter, a career working with wood, making things of value and usefulness. A future as an artisan was the plan for when I left school. The next step would be an apprenticeship, day release to technical college and a pathway to earning a living.

This never happened and a strange turn of events took me along a very different and on reflection, ironic path. As I read my pension statement of May 2017, recording 34 years of service in my chosen field of work, I pondered on what life would be like now and who I would be, had I taken the path of artisanship all those years ago.

For this assignment, I set out to create a single self-portrait of who I might be now, based upon an imagined self from my adolescence. A fifty something me, had I taken a different path at 16. The tools, timber and plans set out on a work bench creating a sense of my then naive notion of the carpenter and his work. My attire, a reference back to a teacher who had supported me develop self-confidence that ultimately led me on a very different path than artisanship.

It had to be a fictional image for multiple reasons, firstly it isn’t who I am, but more importantly it couldn’t be like a woodworking artisan in 2017, with all that technology affords such a worker today. I wanted the image to be a carpenter as envisioned by my 15-year-old self, a fantasy made real through location, props and lighting. There is undoubted nostalgia in this work but also something about a fictitious tableau image, that reveals echoes of my past.

I’d like the work to invite the viewer to consider who they might be at this point in their lives if they too had taken a different path at 15 or 16 years of age. I want the work to ask that question of others. Life is full of key points of decision making, but also key points to ask the question, what might have happened if I had chosen a different route?

Context, Preparation and Completion

My key influences in creating this work were Jodie Taylor’s: Memories of Childhood, Nikki S. Lee’s Masquerade images and Tom Hunter’s constructed images. In addition, the tableau approach of Geoff Wall and the filmic work of Gregory Crewdson gave me food for thought. Cindy Sherman’s fictitious but plausible self-portraits offered inspiration and her work around film stills influenced my final choice of image.

Location

In creating a plausible fiction, I considered booking a studio to undertake the work because of the control it might offer. However, I was able to gain access for several days to a disused former carpenters workshop in a Nissen Hut (now used for storage) to make the work. This presented some challenges in preparing it and the foibles of lighting and set dressing, but the effort was worthwhile in terms of the authenticity I was seeking to achieve in the final images. There were also space and time constraints, in particular the view point, subject positioning and lighting, but these were all managed for the final images.

Props, lighting and costume

Sourcing tools as props from the era that I was at school involved eBay, car boot sales and requests to friends. Through this, I secured the materials needed to make the work in line with the vision I had from the outset of the images I wanted to make. Creating a tableau image in the space, using the tools, costume and lighting was all achieved through a degree of experimentation, trial and error. The contact sheets illustrate this process and the images below show the location and the constraints of space. Through practice and experiment I settled on a mix of daylight for backlighting, a single high power daylight balanced continuous light source and a speed light and umbrella running at 30% power.

I have no doubt that my adolescent self’s vision of a carpenter was shaped by Mr. Arkwright’s appearance. Unlike the other practical subject teachers, he wore a collar and tie. He also wore a white lab coat (not the beige coat of his fellow practical subject teachers). His lab coat top pocket filled with pens and pencils was also a feature I recall. I didn’t know any carpenters and my positive engagement with woodwork, shaped by a helpful and positive teacher created a sort of fantasy that being a carpenter would be like being Mr. Arkwright. I set out to reflect this in my image using a similar attire.

Camera and Lenses

This assignment was a solo effort and working alone pushed the boundaries technically for me. I used a crop sensor camera, initially with a zoom lens until I understood the space and location and the framing implications and then I switched to a fast-prime lens to achieve the depth of field I envisaged. The camera was mounted on a tall tripod set high and I aligned it from a step ladder to get the viewpoint I wanted. Like the experiments with the lighting, I made several self-timer images to get the desired framing. I used a wireless trigger for the speed light that also allowed me to control the flash output remotely. In addition, I used the camera wirelessly tethered to a tablet. This allowed me to frame and focus as well as review images quickly.

Using this approach and taking more than 300 images to test the lighting, framing and lens selection I settled on a final selection of image from which a made a final choice. Set out below is the last cut of images from which the final selection was made.

       

       

       

       

Self-Evaluation

Demonstration of technical and visual skills

Working within the physical constraints of the workshop space, I feel I managed the lighting and exposure to make a range of technically acceptable images. The use of props and the composition of the images, given the constraints of space and time also led to the production of some plausible balanced compositions. The structure of the Nissen hut and its harsh fluorescent lighting and daylight provided by the windows, presented a range of challenges. Through experiment I managed the lighting and the creation of a tableau that is well lit and plausible.

Quality of outcome

I have mixed views about the final image, there is a degree of technical competence and I am pleased with the lighting, control of the highlights and the overall tableau. I was pressed for time given I was using someone else’s space and I feel I was rushing a little. If time had permitted I would have liked to revisit and rework some of the developing image themes. The selection of the final image was heavily influenced by the look of Sherman’s cine still’s work. Although Sherman’s theme in this work is very different to mine, there is a pensive, distant look to her poses in her images that asks a question of the viewer about the subject’s thoughts and feelings. I am not sure I achieved this but I had a good stab at it

Demonstration of creativity

This work came out of a creative process set out in greater detail in my blog. I feel the idea of exploring an alternative self, based upon memory and recollection from more than three decades ago was a worthy project to explore and one that might benefit from further work. The idea of the image to explore one’s own and others biographies is a theme that appeared throughout the Context and Narrative course. This is a theme I am already exploring further in my work outside my OCA studies, but I feel this complements my OCA journey.

Context

This work tells a fictional story, but one that might have happened, it is made up, constructed through memory and recollection of times long past. I have travelled a very different path to the one envisaged by my adolescent self, but the exercise h reconnected me to a very different time in my life. If photography has the power to tell stories, this assignment illustrates it has the power to create a fiction that might have been a truth but for circumstance. Like Morrissey and Wearing, all be it is a very minor way I have tried to create work that shines a light on what it is to be human and how memory is a subject for the artist to explore.

Summary

This was a rewarding learning experience. Having reviewed the images and drafted the text to support the work there are things I would have done differently had time permitted. Specifically, I would have liked to review all the images and then gone back some time later to focus more on the more tightly cropped images. Those in my final selection start to achieve what I envisioned but are not quite what I had wanted, but almost! There is something about the gap between what is imaged and what is possible and I am sure this is a recurrent challenge for the aspiring artist.

References

Boothroyd, S. (2015) Context and Narrative, Open College of the Arts, Barnsley Cotton, C. (2014) The Photograph as Contemporary Art, Thames and Hudson, London

Christianson, H. (2015) The photographer went on a one woman honeymoon, Dazed- found at : http://www.dazeddigital.com/photography/article/25387/1/this-photographer-went-on-a-one-woman- honeymoon (Accessed June 2017)

Kino, C. (2006) Now in Moving Pictures: The Multitudes of Nikki S. Lee, New York Times found at: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/01/arts/design/01kino.html?ex=1317355200&en=ba68cca87c7 383c1&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&_r=0 (Accessed June 2017)

Shaffran, N Website, found at: http://www.nigelshafran.com (Accessed June 2017)

Gillian Wearing takeover: behind the mask – the Self Portraits https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2012/mar/27/gillian-wearing-takeover- mas (Accessed June 2017)

Nikki S. Lee: The Creators Project found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oI8xpJItPVI (Accessed June 2017)

Phillips, S. (2013) Trish Morrissey’s best photograph: infiltrating a family on a Kent beach, Guardian, found at: http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/jan/23/trish-morrissey-best- shot (Accessed October 2016)

Trish Morrissey works found at: http://www.trishmorrissey.com/index.html (Accessed June 2017)

Sherman, C. (1977) Untitled Film Stills Found at: http://www.americansuburbx.com/2014/12/cindy- sherman-untitled-film-stills-1977-1980.html (Accessed June 2017)

Assignment 5 Preparation – Making it up

Making it up

Construct a stand-alone image of your choice. Alternatively, you may choose to make a series, elaborating on the same theme.

As the culminating assignment for the course you may wish to draw upon skills learned from Parts One to Four – using various forms of narrative, using yourself as subject matter, telling stories and reading images. The only stipulation is that you produce work that has been controlled and directed by you for a specific purpose. Remember to create a story with a specific context like the artists you’ve looked at in Part Five. This means you need to have an artistic intention, so a good place to start would be to write down some ideas. This could then form the basis for a 300-word introduction to the piece. You may find it helpful to draw storyboards to help you visualise your ideas.

The aim of this assignment is to use props, costume, models, location, lighting, etc. to contribute to the overall meaning of the image. (Use flash/lights if required but available light is fine as long as it is considered.)

If the narrative is to be set in a different era then the elements of the image must reflect this. Also consider the symbolic meanings of objects and try not to be too literal in your approach. For example, don’t automatically use red roses in a love scene but try to be subtle in your ideas to obtain a more true-to-life scenario.

For this final assignment, you should also include an illustrated evaluation of the process you went through to produce your final image(s). Include snapshots of setting up the work and write about how you felt your direction went, how you found the location, props, etc. How did this process affect the final outcome? Write around 1,000 words in total (including your 300-word introduction).

Send your final image(s) to your tutor, along with your commentary and relevant pages of your learning log (or blog url).

At the start of this course when I looked through all of the assignments I would have to undertake I felt most daunted by Assignment 5. Now that I have arrived at the preparation stage for this assignment I feel much more confident about its planning and execution. Why?  Well I am viewing it as a culmination of the whole Context and Narrative journey and I generally feel a better image maker, not a great image maker, but definitely a more thoughtful one.

Throughout my OCA studies there has been reference to finding a ‘personal voice’, in the course materials and in the dialogue between students online, on both the OCA Forum and the numerous unofficial OCA social media sites. At this point 26 months into my degree programme, I am getting closer to a notion of the work I want to make and the idea of the autobiographical image has been a feature of most of my assignments on this course.

In planning  this assignment I thought it would be helpful to do a quick recap from memory of what I had covered in the course so far and who had been the influential photographers whose work and ideas had piqued my interest. While waiting for a train  I sat in a damp waiting room and I  drafted out a  quick chart of the C&N content, it was a useful exercise to do from recall alone and it helped me to begin to distill and create the idea that was to become the theme for this final assignment. 

Although not covering all of the course in detail, it still proved to be a valuable exercise, particularly in reminding me of the photographers whose work had had the most impact on me throughout the course. It was also helpful to see a clear train of learning from the initial exploration of the photograph as document, the ideas of reportage, the challenge of authenticity and the manipulated image. The work of W. Eugene Smith and the reasons for his departure from Life magazine reminded me of the fluid idea of what is real and what is not in an image. Then in part two the notion of narrative as story, but also as the link between images and how meaning can be communicated in a variety of ways.  Barthe’s idea of the death of the author, tackling the post modern narrative and the loss of primacy of the author. The idea of the reader/viewer creating meaning as being separate from the authors intent also  made me think about the idea of a narrative in general  and where the locus of contreol sits in the creation of meaning in both text and image.  Autobiography, the self absented portrait and the idea that an image can tell a story beyond the frame and its content has also been a clear message along the way. Masquerades and the photographer themselves being the focus of a project, but hidden and exposed simultaneously within a wider story made me think of the power of photography beyond it’s imagery and obvious initial content. The work of Lee, Morrissey  and Wearing really stand out in this section as does Shaffron and  Brothers.  Latterly Calypso’s ( see Christianson 2015) work has also influenced my thinking about masquerades, making it up and the self absented portrait.

All these artists  offer a narrative beyond the content of the frame. All to some extent use common tropes, the family portrait, the tourist photograph, the self portrait and the construction of  still life of domestic objects to mention a few,   to say something bigger about the human condition.

Decoding images and having to write about a single photograph in assignment 4 made me think in real detail about narrative, rudimentary semiotics, the sign and the signified and also placing work in a broader context and the concept of intertextuality. This notion in particular made me think about the natural and also accidental links between works in the same and different genres. Although not an exhaustive review of the course this was what I gleaned from just recall in a dreary railway station waiting room with paper pen and no access to my blog or the course materials. I was pleased with this exercise in recall!

The next stage in the assignment preparation was to pull out the work of photographers whose images and approach to image making seemed to be most relevant to my developing idea for a constructed image  for this assignment. Again, putting my thoughts on paper as a diagram assisted. From this I pulled out ideas based on the work of:

  • Cheryl Dunye and Zoe Leonard
  • Gregory Crewdson
  • Geoff Wall
  • Cindy Sherman
  • Tom Hunter
  • Jodie Taylor
  • Gillian Wearing
  • Hannah Starkey

While doing the research and preparation for the assignment two fortuitous things happened. I revisited the work of Jodie Taylor and I received an annual pension contributions statement from my employer. Two entirely unconnected events that led to a creative moment!

The genesis and development of an idea

I hated every day of school!

Attending secondary school in the 1970s, at a large urban secondary modern, was marginally more bearable than primary school, but only just. I generally hated school. The exception was the time I spent in woodwork lessons. They were a sort of haven, in no small part due to the kindness of Mr. Arkwright, a teacher who seemed to genuinely care and be interested in his pupils.

A very different educator to his peers, who with hindsight were cruel martinets, quick to use the cane and even quicker to point out your failings and inadequacies. A tough and at times brutal regime that made the idea that your schools days are the best of your life an utter absurdity. The secondary modern school was the home to those who had failed the 11+ and I recall being reminded of this on a regular basis. A topical issue in 2017 with marginal  government committed to opening new grammar schools (stop press, this might be off the table now), which by default will mean the downgrading of comprehensive schools to secondary moderns,  a thought that sends a chill down my spine! But I digress.

As a 15 year year old I found confidence and sense of self worth in being able to make accurately  measured and well cut mortice and tenon joints, dovetail joints and many other constructions in timber. All executed, planned and prepared with hand tools, through careful measurements and a can do spirit spurred on by a good teacher. First a jewellery box, then a small coffee table , then a chair. Moving from using cheap pine to then ash and oak, then teak and mahogany. I had an aptitude that meant I was trusted with higher grade materials. The experience of one part of school being positive and engaging helped my confidence and sense of self worth. In my final two years of secondary education I was set on becoming a carpenter, a career working with tools and wood, making things of value and usefulness. A future as an artisan was my plan for when I left school. The next step  would be an apprenticeship maybe, day release to technical college and a pathway to  earning a living making things in wood.

This never happened and a strange turn of events took me along a very different and highly ironic path and as I read my pension statement of April 2017 recording 34 years of service in the field of work I have been in for more than three decades, I pondered  on what life would be like and who I would be  had I taken the path of artisanship all those years ago.

I decided this would be the theme of a constructed stand alone image, an imagined me as an artisan worker in wood, as I might have envisioned myself all those years ago at school.

It has to be a fictional image for multiple reasons, firstly it isn’t who I am, but more importantly it won’t be like a genuine woodworking artisan in 2017, with all that technology affords such a worker today. I want the image to be a carpenter as envisioned by my 15 year old self, a fantasy made real through location, props and lighting. There is undoubted nostalgia in this work but also something about a fictitious tableaux  image, that reveals something about my past. I’d also like the work to invite the viewer  to consider who they might be at this point in their lives if they too had taken a different path at 15 or 16 years of age. I want the work to ask that question of others. Life is full of key points of decision making, but also key points to ask the question, what might have happened if I had chosen a different route?

My influences in creating this work were Jodie Taylor’s: Memories of Childhood, Nikki S. Lee’s Masquerade image and  Tom Hunter’s constructed images influenced by classical painting. In addition the tableaux approach of Goeff Wall and also the epic and filmic work of Crewdson also gave me food for thought. Cindy Sherman’s images or more specifically her fictitious but plausible within her work also offered some real inspiration. Reflecting on the work of these artists allowed me to begin to construct , or make up the idea for this final assignment

In short I set out to create a self portrait of who I would be now, based upon an imagined self from my adolescence. A fifty something self had I taken a very different path at the age of 16.

Creating a plausible fiction, Making it up!

Location

I needed an authentic  location in which to make the work. I had thought of hiring a studio and taking some props, but decided early on I needed something more authentic. After some leg work I was offered access to  a modern carpentry workshop, set up with high tech equipment, a fully 21st century operation. That didn’t fit the bill  for the atmosphere I wanted to create in the work. My mid teens where in the middle of the 1970’s and my notions of wanting to be a carpenter were located in the workshop and tools of that era. Given I wanted to create an image of me as a carpenter in my mid 50’s it needed to be as I imagined it back then. Trapped in time, un-realistic and far more about a vision in my head as a teenager, than any contemporary notion of the woodworking artisan in 2017.

The rural landscape of East Anglia where I live, is littered with remnants of the second world war and in particular the remains of the 8th Army Air Corp of the United States. After the war some of those facilities were recycled and it was in one such location I found the exactly what I needed. In the 1950’s a local house builder in the village where I live bought and moved a wartime nissen hut to his premises. The hut was used as the workshop for his caparenters who made bespoke windows and doors for the houses he was building. He went out of business in the 1970’s (when I was still at school hundreds of miles away from this location and thinking it was a carpenter I would become) and the workshop fell into disuse, eventually being used for dry storage. Some traces of the nissen huts workshop past remain but when I found the location I needed to do a lot of tidying and clearing to make a usable location. It did have a workbench though and although the working space was cramped, I set about using this as the location for the work and clearing things out (with permission) in order to construct my plausible fiction.

The bench and the main shooting location

The lighting and also an image showing the relatively cramped condition in the location

Props

In setting out to create a tableaux image I needed the right props. My image of me as a carpenter in my mid 50’s, as perhaps envisioned by my adoelscent self would be using hand tools and the sorts of tools that were used in a school woodwork room. Other than a lathe and a pilar drill all other items were basic hand tools, a try square, steel rule, pencil, chisels, a mallet a tack hammer and mortice gauge. A couple of car boot sales and  several eBay purchase proved beneficial and I was a blue to assemble the tools I envisioned using in the assignment.

The range of tools as props, not all were used

There was also what to wear? I have no doubt that my 16 year old selfs vision of a carpenter was  was shaped by Mr. Arkwright and his appearance. Unlike the other practical subject teachers, he always wore a collar and tie, what I now know to be a regimental tie and cufflinks. He also wore a white lab coat ( not the manila beige coats of his fellow practical subject teachers. His lab coat pocket filled with pens and pencils was also a feature I recall. I didd’t know any carpenters and my positive engagement with woodwork, shaped by a helpful and positive teacher created a sort of fantasy that being a carpenter would be like being Mr. Arkwright!

This then became part of making up my plausible fiction. I acquired a white lab coat , a regimental tie and the pre requites pan and pencils for the lab coat pocket. Reflecting on the military striped tie neatly in place created an echo of a time before health and safety regulations. 

Lighting

The assignment forced me to really push the boundaries in using lighting. I tend to use natural light and have some rudimentary skills in the use of  speedlights. For this work I set out to create the sort of lighting that is use in environmental portraits, the sort that might be used in advertising materials or magazine articles. The nissen hut had poor quality fluorescent lighting that would not be helpful and also had a number of windows allowing natural light. One of which was large and given the restrictions of space and where I could place the camera and me as the subject, meant it would be behind me. I  did a lot of experimentation with both multiple speedlights, umbrellas and reflectors and also some daylight balanced continuos lighting from a softbox.  the corrugated scripture of the building created some strange effect that I was able to counter through experiment.

   

I was able to practice and experiment at the location and eventually settled on a mix of daylight for backlighting, a single high power daylight balance continuous light and a speed light and umbrella running at just 30 %. The diagram below shows the arrangement at the location. It also illustrates the mix of light sources I was manipulated to achieve my desired outcome. What the diagram can’t show is the effects that all light sources, artificial and natural have when directed in a corrugated nissen hut, which is in effect a giant baffle.

Lighting arrangements

It is also worth noting that the diagram shows the final position of the lighting, but during the image making process the camera position was changed slightly with the final images being made with the camera off set to let from the position in the diagram

Camera and Lenses

This assignment was a solo effort much like assignment three. It would have been great to have had an assistant but in  truth having to work alone pushed the boundaries technically for me. I used a crop sensor camera, initially with a zoom lens until I understood the space and location better and then switched to a  fast prime lens  approximating to 50mm on a full from camera. The camera was mounted on a tall tripod and I aligned if from a step ladder in order to get the height I wanted. like the experiments with the lighting I made a number of self timer images to get the framing that i wanted.

I used a wireless trigger for the speed light that also allowed me to control the flash output remotely. In addition I used the camera wirelessly tethered to an tablet. This allowed me to frame and focus as well as get a quick preview of the images. Had I not done this I  think I would have taken days to get an image I was happy with.

Location of the iPad for wireless control o the cameras functions

I set up the location and made the images over two days , around 300 images were made included the location light testing shots.

All in all this was a very enjoyable, nostalgic and personally thought provoking assignment to execute, one that I learned much from, technically, artistically and also psychologically.

References

Boothroyd, S. (2015) Context and Narrative, Open College of the Arts, Barnsley

Cotton, C. (2014) The Photograph as Contemporary Art, Thames and Hudson, London

Christianson, H. (2015) The photographer went on a one woman honeymoon, Dazed- found at : http://www.dazeddigital.com/photography/article/25387/1/this-photographer-went-on-a-one-woman-honeymoon (Accessed June 2017)

Cosgrove , B. (2012) W.Eugene Smith’s landmark Portrait: Country Doctor 1948 Found at: http://www.time.com/3456085/w-eugene-smiths-landmark-photo-essay-country-doctor/ (Accessed June 2017)

Kino, C. (2006) Now in Moving Pictures: The Multitudes of Nikki S. Lee, New York Times found at: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/10/01/arts/design/01kino.html?ex=1317355200&en=ba68cca87c7383c1&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss&_r=0 (AccessedJune 2017)

Shaffran, N Website, found at: nigel shaffran (AccessedJune 2017)

Gillian Wearing takeover: behind themask – the Self Portraits
https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/gallery/2012/mar/27/gillian-wearing-takeover-mas (AccessedJune 2017)

Nikki S. Lee: The Creators Project found at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oI8xpJItPVI (AccessedJune 2017)

Phillips, S. (2013) Trish Morrissey’s best photograph: infiltrating a family on a Kent beach, Guardian, found at:http://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/jan/23/trish-morrissey-best-shot (Accessed October 2016)

Trish Morrissey works found at: http://www.trishmorrissey.com/index.html (AccessedJune 2017)

Sherman, C. (1977) Untitled Film Stills Found at:  www.americansuburbx.com/2014/12/cindy-sherman-untitled-film-stills-1977-1980.html (Accessed June 2017)